â Very Important Links of ´´My´´ Dissertation (Article: The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice â Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81.) and My Monograph â Induction of benzonidazole resistance in human isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi @ Note about my dissertartion: during anaerobic exercise it was necessary to briefly hold the tail of the mice for better physical performance and better adaptation to the submitted environment. In this same type of exercise, there were times when the mice could not exercise and sank, causing manual manipulation again. The physical wear of the animals was intense. @ EDITORIAL 20 MARCH 2019 â Nature 567, 283 (2019) ->´´Itâs time to talk about ditching statistical significance â Looking beyond a much used and abused measure would make science harder, but better.´´Statistical significance is so deeply integrated into scientific practice and evaluation that extricating it would be painful. ´´Nature is not seeking to change how it considers statistical analysis in evaluation of papers at this time, but we encourage readers to share their views´´When working out which methods to use, researchers should also focus as much as possible on actual problems. People who will duel to the death over abstract theories on the best way to use statistics often agree on results when they are presented with concrete scenarios. Researchers should seek to analyse data in multiple ways to see whether different analyses converge on the same answer. In short, be sceptical, pick a good question, and try to answer it in many ways. It takes many numbers to get close to the truth.´´ @ Links about Animal Models Diseases like Cardiovascular Diseases – Science, Technology and Innovation – Time – Data – World @ Rodrigo Nunes Cal

Do the downloads !!! Share!! Thanks!! ´´The world people need to have very efficient researches and projects resulting in very innovative drugs, vaccines, therapeutical substances, medical devices and other technologies according to the age, the genetics and medical records of the person. So, the treatment, disgnosis and prognosis will be very efficient and better, of course´´. Rodrigo Nunes Cal https://science-1984.com/2021/08/14/do-the-downloads-of-very-important-detailed-and-innovative-data-of-the-world-about-my-dissertation-like-the-graphics-i-did-about-the-variations-of-weights-of-all-mice-control/ Mestrado – Dissertation – Tabelas, Figuras e Gráficos – Tables, Figures and Graphics Impact_Fator-wise_Top100Science_Journals CARCINÓGENO DMBA EM MODELOS EXPERIMENTAIS Avaliação da influência da atividade física aeróbia e anaeróbia na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental – Summary – Resumo My Dissertation – Article: The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice – Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-8. https://science-1984.com/2019/08/02/in-my-dissertation-the-progression-of-lung-cancer-was-lower-in-the-group-of-mice-that-practiced-anaerobic-physical-activity-it-would-be-very-important-innovative-and-interesting-to-do-researches-in/ Link about my dissertation -> A influência da atividade física na progressão do câncer de pulmão experimental em camundongos : https://science-1984.com/2018/07/15/i-did-very-important-detailed-and-innovative-graphics-about-variations-of-all-mice-weigths-during-all-exerimental-time-my-dissertation-they-can-be-an-excelent-reference-for-future-researches-like-2/ @ Note about my dissertartion: during anaerobic exercise it was necessary to briefly hold the tail of the mice for better physical performance and better adaptation to the submitted environment. In this same type of exercise, there were times when the mice could not exercise and sank, causing manual manipulation again. The physical wear of the animals was intense. Link of my monograph : Induction of benzonidazole resistance in human isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi – https://science-1984.com/2018/07/15/my-monography-chagas-disease-research-in-laboratory-2/ -> http://slideplayer.com.br/slide/7306497/ MY MONOGRAPH -> INDUÇÃO DE RESISTÊNCIA AO BENZONIDAZOL EM ISOLADOS HUMANOS DE TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI – https://science-1984.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/monografia-monography.pdf The graphics I did about the variations of all mice weights of different ages during all experimental time aren´t in the scientific article related to my dissertation nor in my dissertation as well as details about time of exercise and rest of the animals. These graphics and other informations can be an excellent reference for many types of researches like in the field of genetic engineering. Note: during anaerobic exercise it was necessary to briefly hold the tail of the mice for better physical performance and better adaptation to the submitted environment. In this same type of exercise, there were times when the mice could not exercise and sank, causing manual manipulation again. The physical wear of the animals was intense. Observação: durante o exercício anaeróbio foi preciso segurar por pouco tempo a cauda dos camundongos para a aquisição de um melhor rendimento físico e uma melhor adaptação ao meio submetido. Neste mesmo tipo de exercício, houve momentos em que os camundongos não conseguiram ficar se exercitando e afundaram, fazendo com que houvesse a manipulação manual novamente.  O desgaste físico dos animais foi intenso. Very important observations: Cancer is very related to the weight loss of the patient. Weight loss of the patient is very associated with cancer – The syndrome of Anorexia-Cachexia (SAC) is a frequent complication in patients with advanced malignant neoplasia. Age, weight and genetics of the person are very important factors that influence cancer in a determined ways. The genetics of the mouse is very similar to that of the human. Maintaining proper body weight is one of the main ways to prevent cancer of a person. Animal testing has a very high importance to world society. The mouse is the main animal model used as the basis for research on diseases that affect humans. Weight lifting (bodybuilder) is a great example of anaerobic physical activity in humans. The age of the mouse and the human being with the genetics influence in certain ways in pathophysiology in the humans and mice. So, mice researches are very important for the society as well as researches with humans. It´s very important professors, students, scientists, researchers and other people worldwide know about my dissertation made at Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto because it was a very innovative and important research as well as my monograph (Chagas Disease research in laboratory at Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro -> Induction of benzonidazole resistance in human isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi). The data like graphics I made about variations of weights in all mice of different ages (Control Group -> treated with urethane and without physical activity and Study Group – Aerobic Group -> treated with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise – Anaerobic Group –> treated with urethane and subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight) during all experimental time [My dissertation -> Lung cancer research in mice – Article: The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice – Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81] are essential for the world scientific community. It´s very important professors, students, scientists, researchers and other people worldwide know about my dissertation made at Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto because it was a very innovative and important research as well as my monograph (Chagas Disease research in laboratory at Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro -> Induction of benzonidazole resistance in human isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi). The data like graphics I made about variations of weights in all mice of different ages (Control Group -> treated with urethane and without physical activity and Study Group – Aerobic Group -> treated with urethane and subjected to aerobic swimming free exercise – Anaerobic Group –> treated with urethane and subjected to anaerobic swimming exercise with gradual loading 5-20% of body weight) during all experimental time [My dissertation -> Lung cancer research in mice – Article: The influence of physical activity in the progression of experimental lung cancer in mice – Pathol Res Pract. 2012 Jul 15;208(7):377-81] are essential for the world scientific community.

In my dissertation the progression of lung cancer was lower in the group of mice that practiced anaerobic physical activity. It would be very innovative, important and interesting to do researches in mice and humans testing a substance or substances, analyzing the influences of ages, sex, genetics, weights and types of physical activities within the group itself and in the other groups in the inhibition and progression of cancer and in other situations in all experimental time, for example, and examining biochemical, pathological, pharmacological and physiological factors. In this context, it is essential to seek new methodologies for the treatment, prevention and early detection of cancer and other diseases, such as vaccines and other very modern technologies. It is fundamental to consider the significance of variants like weights, ages and genetics in relation to cancer. It is not easy to understand cancer in all aspects, of course. So, more researches about it are very necessary in the world. It´s fundamental inform you the researches I participated. The world needs more efficient researches with high quality and precision. There are many laboratories that used mice to study pathologies and received very important financial investments. Many people won very important prizes because used mice in their researches. I hope that researchers, teachers, students, scientists and other people linked to scientific researches worldwide use the graphics I made about the variations of all mice weights during all experimental time of my dissertation as an example, model or reference for conducting scientific researches as well as other data from my monograph and dissertation, leading to very beneficial innovations in the methodologies bringing very important and relevant results to the world society, significantly increasing the human life time more and more. Thesis From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to searchFor other uses, see Thesis (disambiguation).”Dissertation” redirects here. For the novel, see The Dissertation.Doctoral ceremony at Leiden University (7 July 1721). A  thesis  or  dissertation [1]  is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author’s research and findings. [2]  In some contexts, the word “thesis” or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor’s or master’s course, while “dissertation” is normally applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is true. [3]  The term  graduate thesis  is sometimes used to refer to both master’s theses and doctoral dissertations. [4] The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, and the required minimum study period may thus vary significantly in duration. The word “dissertation” can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree. The term “thesis” is also used to refer to the general claim of an essay or similar work. Contents 1Etymology 2Structure and presentation style 3Thesis committee 4Regional and degree-specific practices and terminologies
4.1Argentina 4.2Canada 4.3Croatia 4.4Czech Republic 4.5Finland 4.6France 4.7Germany 4.8India 4.9Indonesia 4.10Iran 4.11Italy 4.12Malaysia 4.13Pakistan 4.14Philippines 4.15Poland 4.16Portugal and Brazil 4.17Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Ukraine 4.18Slovenia 4.19Slovakia 4.20Sweden 4.21United Kingdom 4.22United States 4.1Argentina 4.2Canada 4.3Croatia 4.4Czech Republic 4.5Finland 4.6France 4.7Germany 4.8India 4.9Indonesia 4.10Iran 4.11Italy 4.12Malaysia 4.13Pakistan 4.14Philippines 4.15Poland 4.16Portugal and Brazil 4.17Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Ukraine 4.18Slovenia 4.19Slovakia 4.20Sweden 4.21United Kingdom 4.22United States 5Thesis examinations 6Submission 7See also 8References 9External links Etymology[edit] The term “thesis” comes from the Greek Î¸Î­ÏƒÎ¹Ï‚, meaning “something put forth”, and refers to an intellectual proposition. “Dissertation” comes from the Latin  dissertātiō , meaning “discussion”. Aristotle was the first philosopher to define the term thesis. “A ‘thesis’ is a supposition of some eminent philosopher that conflicts with the general opinion…for to take notice when any ordinary person expresses views contrary to men’s usual opinions would be silly”. [5] For Aristotle, a thesis would therefore be a supposition that is stated in contradiction with general opinion or express disagreement with other philosophers (104b33-35). A supposition is a statement or opinion that may or may not be true depending on the evidence and/or proof that is offered (152b32). The purpose of the dissertation is thus to outline the proofs of why the author disagrees with other philosophers or the general opinion. Structure and presentation style[edit] Cover page to Søren Kierkegaard‘s university thesis (1841). Structure[edit] A thesis (or dissertation) may be arranged as a thesis by publication or a monograph, with or without appended papers, respectively, though many graduate programs allow candidates to submit a curated collection of published papers. An ordinary monograph has a title page, an abstract, a table of contents, comprising the various chapters like introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and bibliography or more usually a references section. They differ in their structure in accordance with the many different areas of study (arts, humanities, social sciences, technology, sciences, etc.) and the differences between them. In a thesis by publication, the chapters constitute an introductory and comprehensive review of the appended published and unpublished article documents. Dissertations normally report on a research project or study, or an extended analysis of a topic. The structure of a thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the previous research literature impinging on the topic of the study, the methods used, and the findings of the project. Most world universities use a multiple chapter format :a) an introduction: which introduces the research topic, the methodology, as well as its scope and significanceb) a literature review: reviewing relevant literature and showing how this has informed the research issuec) a methodology chapter, explaining how the research has been designed and why the research methods/population/data collection and analysis being used have been chosend) a findings chapter: outlining the findings of the research itselfe) an analysis and discussion chapter: analysing the findings and discussing them in the context of the literature review (this chapter is often divided into two—analysis and discussion)f) a conclusion.: [6] [7]  which shows judgement or decision reached by thesis Style[edit] Degree-awarding institutions often define their own house style that candidates have to follow when preparing a thesis document. In addition to institution-specific house styles, there exist a number of field-specific, national, and international standards and recommendations for the presentation of theses, for instance ISO 7144. [2]  Other applicable international standards include ISO 2145 on section numbers, ISO 690 on bibliographic references, and ISO 31 on quantities or units. Some older house styles specify that front matter (title page, abstract, table of content, etc.) must use a separate page number sequence from the main text, using Roman numerals. The relevant international standard [2]  and many newer style guides recognize that this book design practice can cause confusion where electronic document viewers number all pages of a document continuously from the first page, independent of any printed page numbers. They, therefore, avoid the traditional separate number sequence for front matter and require a single sequence of Arabic numerals starting with 1 for the first printed page (the recto of the title page). Presentation requirements, including pagination, layout, type and color of paper, use of acid-free paper (where a copy of the dissertation will become a permanent part of the library collection), paper size, order of components, and citation style, will be checked page by page by the accepting officer before the thesis is accepted and a receipt is issued. However, strict standards are not always required. Most Italian universities, for example, have only general requirements on the character size and the page formatting, and leave much freedom for the actual typographic details. [8] Thesis committee[edit] A thesis or dissertation committee is a committee that supervises a student’s dissertation. In the US, these committees usually consist of a primary supervisor or advisor and two or more committee members, who supervise the progress of the dissertation and may also act as the examining committee, or jury, at the oral examination of the thesis (see below). At most universities, the committee is chosen by the student in conjunction with his or her primary adviser, usually after completion of the comprehensive examinations or prospectus meeting, and may consist of members of the comps committee. The committee members are doctors in their field (whether a PhD or other designation) and have the task of reading the dissertation, making suggestions for changes and improvements, and sitting in on the defense. Sometimes, at least one member of the committee must be a professor in a department that is different from that of the student. Regional and degree-specific practices and terminologies[edit] This section  needs additional citations for verification . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources:  “Thesis” â€“ news  ·  newspapers  ·  books  ·  scholar  ·  JSTOR  (December 2018)  (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Argentina[edit] In the  Latin American docta , the academic dissertation can be referred to as different stages inside the academic program that the student is seeking to achieve into a recognized Argentine University, in all the cases the students must develop original contribution in the chosen fields by means of several paper work and essays that comprehend the body of the  thesis . [9]  Correspondingly to the academic degree, the last phase of an academic thesis is called in Spanish a  defensa de grado ,  defensa magistral  or  defensa doctoral  in cases in which the university candidate is finalizing his or her licentiate, master’s, or PhD program. According to a committee resolution, the dissertation can be approved or rejected by an academic committee consisting of the thesis director, the thesis coordinator, and at least one evaluator from another recognized university in which the student is pursuing his or her academic program. All the dissertation referees must already have achieved at least the academic degree that the candidate is trying to reach. [10] Canada[edit] This section’s  factual accuracy is disputed . Relevant discussion may be found on Talk:Thesis. Please help to ensure that disputed statements are reliably sourced.  (February 2016)  (Learn how and when to remove this template message) At English-speaking Canadian universities, writings presented in fulfillment of undergraduate coursework requirements are normally called  papers ,  term papers  or  essays . A longer paper or essay presented for completion of a 4-year bachelor’s degree is sometimes called a  major paper . High-quality research papers presented as the empirical study of a “postgraduate” consecutive bachelor  with Honours  or Baccalaureatus Cum Honore degree are called  thesis  (Honours Seminar Thesis). Major papers presented as the final project for a master’s degree are normally called  thesis ; and major papers presenting the student’s research towards a doctoral degree are called  theses  or  dissertations . At Canadian universities under the French influenced system, [11]  students may have a choice between presenting a “ mémoire “‘, which is a shorter synthetic work (roughly 75 pages) and a  thèse  which is one hundred pages or more. [ citation needed]  A synthetic monograph associated with doctoral work is referred to as a “ thèse “. See also compilation thesis. Either work can be awarded a “ mention d’honneur ” (excellence) as a result of the decision by the examination committee, although these are rare. A typical undergraduate paper or essay might be forty pages. Master’s theses are approximately one hundred pages. PhD theses are usually over two hundred pages. This may vary greatly by discipline, program, college, or university. However, normally the required minimum study period is primarily depending on the complexity or quality of research requirements. Theses Canada acquires and preserves a comprehensive collection of Canadian theses at Library and Archives Canada‘ (LAC) through a partnership with Canadian universities who participate in the program. [12] Croatia[edit] At most university faculties in Croatia, a degree is obtained by defending a thesis after having passed all the classes specified in the degree programme. In the Bologna system, the bachelor’s thesis, called  zavrÅ¡ni rad  (literally “final work” or “concluding work”) is defended after 3 years of study and is about 30 pages long. Most students with bachelor’s degrees continue onto master’s programmes which end with a master’s thesis called  diplomski rad  (literally “diploma work” or “graduate work”). The term dissertation is used for a doctoral degree paper ( doktorska disertacija ). Czech Republic[edit] In the Czech Republic, higher education is completed by passing all classes remaining to the educational compendium for given degree and defending a thesis. For bachelors programme the thesis is called  bakalářská práce  (bachelor’s thesis), for master’s degrees and also doctor of medicine or dentistry degrees it is the  diplomová práce  (master’s thesis), and for Philosophiae doctor (PhD.) degree it is dissertation  dizertační práce . Thesis for so called Higher-Professional School (Vyšší odborná Å¡kola, VOÅ ) is called  absolventská práce . Finland[edit] The following types of thesis are used in Finland (names in Finnish/Swedish): Kandidaatintutkielma/kandidatavhandling is the dissertation associated with lower-level academic degrees (bachelor’s degree), and at universities of applied science. Pro gradu(-tutkielma)/(avhandling )pro gradu , colloquially referred to simply as ‘gradu’, is the dissertation for master’s degrees, which make up the majority of degrees conferred in Finland, and this is therefore the most common type of thesis submitted in the country. The equivalent for engineering and architecture students is diplomityö/diplomarbete . The highest-level theses are called  lisensiaatintutkielma/licentiatavhandling and (tohtorin)väitöskirja/doktorsavhandling , for licentiate and doctoral degrees, respectively. France[edit] The cover of the thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctorate of Medicine (1843). In France, the academic dissertation or thesis is called a  thèse  and it is reserved for the final work of doctoral candidates. The minimum page length is generally (and not formally) 100 pages (or about 400,000 characters), but is usually several times longer (except for technical theses and for “exact sciences” such as physics and maths). To complete a master’s degree in research, a student is required to write a  mémoire , the French equivalent of a master’s thesis in other higher education systems. The word  dissertation  in French is reserved for shorter (1,000–2,000 words), more generic academic treatises. The defense is called a  soutenance . Germany[edit] In Germany, an academic thesis is called  Abschlussarbeit  or, more specifically, the basic name of the degree complemented by  -arbeit  (rough translation:  -work ; e.g.,  Diplomarbeit ,  Masterarbeit ,  Doktorarbeit ). For bachelor’s and master’s degrees, the name can alternatively be complemented by  -thesis  instead (e.g.,  Bachelorthesis ). Length is often given in page count and depends upon departments, faculties, and fields of study. A bachelor’s thesis is often 40–60 pages long, a diploma thesis and a master’s thesis usually 60–100. The required submission for a doctorate is called a  Dissertation  or  Doktorarbeit . The submission for a Habilitation, which is an academic qualification, not an academic degree, is called  Habilitationsschrift , not  Habilitationsarbeit . PhD by publication is becoming increasingly common in many fields of study [ citation needed] . A doctoral degree is often earned with multiple levels of a Latin honors remark for the thesis ranging from  summa cum laude  (best) to  rite  (duly). A thesis can also be rejected with a Latin remark ( non-rite ,  non-sufficit  or worst as  sub omni canone ). Bachelor’s and master’s theses receive numerical grades from 1.0 (best) to 5.0 (failed). India[edit] In India the thesis defense is called a  viva voce  (Latin for “by live voice”) examination ( viva  in short). Involved in the  viva  are two examiners, one guide(student guide) and the candidate. One examiner is an academic from the candidate’s own university department (but not one of the candidate’s supervisors) and the other is an external examiner from a different university. [13] In India, PG Qualifications such as MSc Physics accompanies submission of dissertation in Part I and submission of a Project (a working model of an innovation) in Part II. Engineering and Designing qualifications such as BTech, B.E., B.Des, MTech, M.E. or M.Des also involves submission of dissertation. In all the cases, the dissertation can be extended for summer internship at certain research and development organizations or also as PhD synopsis. Indonesia[edit] In Indonesia, the term thesis is used specifically to refer to master’s theses. The undergraduate thesis is called  skripsi , while the doctoral dissertation is called  disertasi . In general, those three terms are usually called as  tugas akhir  (final assignment), which is mandatory for the completion of a degree. Undergraduate students usually begin to write their final assignment in their third, fourth or fifth enrollment year, depends on the requirements of their respective disciplines and universities. In some universities, students are required to write a  proposal skripsi  or  proposal tesis  (thesis proposal) before they could write their final assignment. If the thesis proposal is considered to fulfill the qualification by the academic examiners, students then may proceed to write their final assignment. Iran[edit] In Iran, usually students are required to present a thesis in their master’s degree and a dissertation in their Doctorate degree, both of which requiring the students to defend their research before a committee and gaining their approval. Most of the norms and rules of writing a thesis or a dissertation are influenced by the French higher education system. [ citation needed] Italy[edit] In Italy there are normally three types of thesis. In order of complexity: one for the Laurea (equivalent to the UK Bachelor’s Degree), another one for the Laurea Magistrale (equivalent to the UK Master’s Degree) and then a thesis to complete the Dottorato di Ricerca (PhD). Thesis requirements vary greatly between degrees and disciplines, ranging from as low as 3–4 ECTS credits to more than 30. Thesis work is mandatory for the completion of a degree. Malaysia[edit] Malaysian universities often follow the British model for dissertations and degrees. However, a few universities follow the United States model for theses and dissertations. Some public universities have both British and US style PhD programs. Branch campuses of British, Australian and Middle East universities in Malaysia use the respective models of the home campuses. Pakistan[edit] In Pakistan, at undergraduate level the thesis is usually called final year project, as it is completed in the senior year of the degree, the name project usually implies that the work carried out is less extensive than a thesis and bears lesser credit hours too. The undergraduate level project is presented through an elaborate written report and a presentation to the advisor, a board of faculty members and students. At graduate level however, i.e. in MS, some universities allow students to accomplish a project of 6 credits or a thesis of 9 credits, at least one publication  [ citation needed]  is normally considered enough for the awarding of the degree with project and is considered mandatory for the awarding of a degree with thesis. A written report and a public thesis defense is mandatory, in the presence of a board of senior researchers, consisting of members from an outside organization or a university. A PhD candidate is supposed to accomplish extensive research work to fulfill the dissertation requirements with international publications being a mandatory requirement. The defense of the research work is done publicly. Philippines[edit] In the Philippines, an academic thesis is named by the degree, such as bachelor/undergraduate thesis or masteral thesis. However, in Philippine English, the term  doctorate  is typically replaced with  doctoral  (as in the case of “doctoral dissertation”), though in official documentation the former is still used. The terms  thesis  and  dissertation  are commonly used interchangeably in everyday language yet it generally understood that a  thesis  refers to bachelor/undergraduate and master academic work while a  dissertation  is named for doctorate work. The Philippine system is influenced by American collegiate system, in that it requires a  research project  to be submitted before being allowed to write a thesis. This project is mostly given as a prerequisite writing course to the actual thesis and is accomplished in the term period before; supervision is provided by one professor assigned to a class. This project is later to be presented in front of an academic panel, often the entire faculty of an academic department, with their recommendations contributing to the acceptance, revision, or rejection of the initial topic. In addition, the presentation of the research project will help the candidate choose their primary thesis adviser. An undergraduate thesis is completed in the final year of the degree alongside existing seminar (lecture) or laboratory courses, and is often divided into two presentations:  proposal  and  thesis  presentations (though this varies across universities), whereas a master thesis or doctorate dissertation is accomplished in the last term alone and is defended once. In most universities, a thesis is required for the bestowment of a degree to a candidate alongside a number of units earned throughout their academic period of stay, though for practice and skills-based degrees a  practicum  and a written report can be achieved instead. The examination board often consists of 3 to 5 examiners, often professors in a university (with a Masters or PhD degree) depending on the university’s examination rules. Required word length, complexity, and contribution to scholarship varies widely across universities in the country. Poland[edit] In Poland, a bachelor’s degree usually requires a  praca licencjacka  (bachelor’s thesis) or the similar level degree in engineering requires a  praca inżynierska  (engineer’s thesis/bachelor’s thesis), the master’s degree requires a  praca magisterska  (master’s thesis). The academic dissertation for a PhD is called a  dysertacja  or  praca doktorska . The submission for the Habilitation is called  praca habilitacyjna” or  dysertacja habilitacyjna”. Thus the term  dysertacja  is reserved for PhD and Habilitation degrees. All the theses need to be “defended” by the author during a special examination for the given degree. Examinations for PhD and Habilitation degrees are public. Portugal and Brazil[edit] In Portugal and Brazil, a dissertation ( dissertação ) is required for completion of a master. The defense is done in a public presentation in which teachers, students, and the general public can participate. For the PhD, a thesis ( tese ) is presented for defense in a public exam. The exam typically extends over 3 hours. The examination board typically involves 5 to 6 scholars (including the advisor) or other experts with a PhD degree (generally at least half of them must be external to the university where the candidate defends the thesis, but it may depend on the University). Each university / faculty defines the length of these documents, and it can vary also in respect to the domains (a thesis in fields like philosophy, history, geography, etc., usually has more pages than a thesis in mathematics, computer science, statistics, etc.) but typical numbers of pages are around 60–80 for MSc and 150–250 for PhD. [ citation needed] In Brazil the Bachelor’s Thesis is called  TCC  or  Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso  (Final Term / Undergraduate Thesis / Final Paper). [14] Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Ukraine[edit] In Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, and Ukraine an academic dissertation or thesis is called what can be literally translated as a “master’s degree work” (thesis), whereas the word  dissertation  is reserved for doctoral theses (Candidate of Sciences). To complete a master’s degree, a student is required to write a thesis and to then defend the work publicly. The length of this manuscript usually is given in page count and depends upon educational institution, its departments, faculties, and fields of study [ citation needed] Slovenia[edit] At universities in Slovenia, an academic thesis called  diploma thesis  is a prerequisite for completing undergraduate studies. The thesis used to be 40–60 pages long, but has been reduced to 20–30 pages in new Bologna process programmes. To complete Master’s studies, a candidate must write  magistrsko delo  (Master’s thesis) that is longer and more detailed than the undergraduate thesis. The required submission for the doctorate is called  doktorska disertacija  (doctoral dissertation). In pre Bologna programmes students were able to skip the preparation and presentation of a Master’s thesis and continue straightforward towards doctorate. Slovakia[edit] In Slovakia, higher education is completed by defending a thesis, which is called  bachelor’s thesis  “bakalárska práca” for bachelors programme, master’s thesis or “diplomová práca” for master’s degrees, and also doctor of medicine or dentistry degrees and dissertation “dizertačná práca” for Philosophiae doctor (PhD.) degree. Sweden[edit] Cover page of a licentiate dissertation in Sweden In Sweden, there are different types of theses. Practices and definitions vary between fields but commonly include the  C thesis /Bachelor thesis, which corresponds to 15 HP or 10 weeks of independent studies,  D thesis /’/Magister/one year master’s thesis, which corresponds to 15 HP or 10 weeks of independent studies and  E Thesis /two-year master’s thesis, which corresponds to 30 HP or 20 weeks of independent studies. The undergraduate theses are called  uppsats  (“essay”), sometimes  examensarbete , especially at technical programmes. After that there are two types of post graduate theses: licentiate thesis and PhD dissertation. A licentiate degree is approximately “half a PhD” in terms of the size and scope of the thesis. Swedish PhD studies should in theory last for four years, including course work and thesis work, but as many PhD students also teach, the PhD often takes longer to complete. The thesis can be written as a monograph or as a compilation thesis; in the latter case, the introductory chapters are called the  kappa  (literally “coat”). [15]  Either kind of PhD thesis is normally referred to as an  avhandling . United Kingdom[edit] Outside the academic community, the terms  thesis  and  dissertation  are interchangeable. At universities in the United Kingdom, the term  thesis  is usually associated with PhD/EngD (doctoral) and research master’s degrees, while  dissertation  is the more common term for a substantial project submitted as part of a taught master’s degree or an undergraduate degree (e.g. MSc, BA, BSc, BMus, BEd, BEng etc.). Thesis word lengths may differ by faculty/department and are set by individual universities. A wide range of supervisory arrangements can be found in the British academy, from single supervisors (more usual for undergraduate and Masters level work) to supervisory teams of up to three supervisors. In teams, there will often be a Director of Studies, usually someone with broader experience (perhaps having passed some threshold of successful supervisions). The Director may be involved with regular supervision along with the other supervisors, or may have more of an oversight role, with the other supervisors taking on the more day-to-day responsibilities of supervision. United States[edit] In some U.S. doctoral programs, the “dissertation” can take up the major part of the student’s total time spent (along with two or three years of classes) and may take years of full-time work to complete. At most universities,  dissertation  is the term for the required submission for the doctorate, and  thesis  refers only to the master’s degree requirement. Thesis  is also used to describe a cumulative project for a bachelor’s degree and is more common at selective colleges and universities, or for those seeking admittance to graduate school or to obtain an honors academic designation. These projects are called “senior projects” or “senior theses”; they are generally done in the senior year near graduation after having completed other courses, the independent study period, and the internship or student teaching period (the completion of most of the requirements before the writing of the paper ensures adequate knowledge and aptitude for the challenge). Unlike a dissertation or master’s thesis, they are not as long and they do not require a novel contribution to knowledge or even a very narrow focus on a set subtopic. Like them, they can be lengthy and require months of work, they require supervision by at least one professor adviser, they must be focused on a certain area of knowledge, and they must use an appreciable amount of scholarly citations. They may or may not be defended before a committee but usually are not; there is generally no preceding examination before the writing of the paper, except for at very few colleges. Because of the nature of the graduate thesis or dissertation having to be more narrow and more novel, the result of original research, these usually have a smaller proportion of the work that is cited from other sources, though the fact that they are lengthier may mean they still have total citations. Specific undergraduate courses, especially writing-intensive courses or courses taken by upperclassmen, may also require one or more extensive written assignments referred to variously as theses, essays, or papers. Increasingly, high schools are requiring students to complete a senior project or senior thesis on a chosen topic during the final year as a prerequisite for graduation. The extended essay component of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme, offered in a growing number of American high schools, is another example of this trend. Generally speaking, a dissertation is judged as to whether or not it makes an original and unique contribution to scholarship. Lesser projects (a master’s thesis, for example) are judged by whether or not they demonstrate mastery of available scholarship in the presentation of an idea. [ dubious â€“ discuss] The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis may vary significantly among universities or programs. Thesis examinations[edit] One of the requirements for certain advanced degrees is often an oral examination (called a  viva voce  examination or just  viva  in the UK and certain other English-speaking countries). This examination normally occurs after the dissertation is finished but before it is submitted to the university, and may comprise a presentation (often public) by the student and questions posed by an examining committee or jury. In North America, an initial oral examination in the field of specialization may take place just before the student settles down to work on the dissertation. An additional oral exam may take place after the dissertation is completed and is known as a  thesis  or  dissertation  “ defense “, which at some universities may be a mere formality and at others may result in the student being required to make significant revisions. Examination results[edit] The result of the examination may be given immediately following deliberation by the examiners (in which case the candidate may immediately be considered to have received his or her degree), or at a later date, in which case the examiners may prepare a defense report that is forwarded to a Board or Committee of Postgraduate Studies, which then officially recommends the candidate for the degree. Potential decisions (or “verdicts”) include: Accepted/pass with no corrections. The thesis is accepted as presented. A grade may be awarded, though in many countries PhDs are not graded at all, and in others, only one of the theoretically possible grades (the highest) is ever used in practice. The thesis must be revised. Revisions (for example, correction of numerous grammatical or spelling errors; clarification of concepts or methodology; an addition of sections) are required. One or more members of the jury or the thesis supervisor will make the decision on the acceptability of revisions and provide written confirmation that they have been satisfactorily completed. If, as is often the case, the needed revisions are relatively modest, the examiners may all sign the thesis with the verbal understanding that the candidate will review the revised thesis with his or her supervisor before submitting the completed version. Extensive revision required. The thesis must be revised extensively and undergo the evaluation and defense process again from the beginning with the same examiners. Problems may include theoretical or methodological issues. A candidate who is not recommended for the degree after the second defense must normally withdraw from the program. Unacceptable. The thesis is unacceptable and the candidate must withdraw from the program. This verdict is given only when the thesis requires major revisions and when the examination makes it clear that the candidate is incapable of making such revisions. At most North American institutions the latter two verdicts are extremely rare, for two reasons. First, to obtain the status of doctoral candidates, graduate students typically write a qualifying examination or comprehensive examination, which often includes an oral defense. Students who pass the qualifying examination are deemed capable of completing scholarly work independently and are allowed to proceed with working on a dissertation. Second, since the thesis supervisor (and the other members of the advisory committee) will normally have reviewed the thesis extensively before recommending the student proceed to the defense, such an outcome would be regarded as a major failure not only on the part of the candidate but also by the candidate’s supervisor (who should have recognized the substandard quality of the dissertation long before the defense was allowed to take place). It is also fairly rare for a thesis to be accepted without any revisions; the most common outcome of a defense is for the examiners to specify minor revisions (which the candidate typically completes in a few days or weeks). At universities on the British pattern it is not uncommon for theses at the  viva  stage to be subject to major revisions in which a substantial rewrite is required, sometimes followed by a new  viva . Very rarely, the thesis may be awarded the lesser degree of M.Phil (Master of Philosophy) instead, preventing the candidate from resubmitting the thesis. Australia[edit] In Australia, doctoral theses are usually examined by three examiners although some, like the Australian Catholic University and the University of New South Wales, have shifted to using only two examiners; without a live defense except in extremely rare exceptions. In the case of a master’s degree by research the thesis is usually examined by only two examiners. Typically one of these examiners will be from within the candidate’s own department; the other(s) will usually be from other universities and often from overseas. Following submission of the thesis, copies are sent by mail to examiners and then reports sent back to the institution. Similar to a master’s degree by research thesis, a thesis for the research component of a master’s degree by coursework is also usually examined by two examiners, one from the candidate’s department and one from another university. For an Honours year, which is a fourth year in addition to the usual three-year bachelor’s degree, the thesis is also examined by two examiners, though both are usually from the candidate’s own department. Honours and Master’s theses sometimes require an oral defense before they are accepted. Germany[edit] In Germany, a thesis is usually examined with an oral examination. This applies to almost all Diplom, Magister, master’s and doctoral degrees as well as to most bachelor’s degrees. However, a process that allows for revisions of the thesis is usually only implemented for doctoral degrees. There are several different kinds of oral examinations used in practice. The  Disputation , also called  Verteidigung  (“defense”), is usually public (at least to members of the university) and is focused on the topic of the thesis. In contrast, the  Rigorosum  is not held in public and also encompasses fields in addition to the topic of the thesis. The  Rigorosum  is only common for doctoral degrees. Another term for an oral examination is  Kolloquium , which generally refers to a usually public scientific discussion and is often used synonymously with  Verteidigung . In each case, what exactly is expected differs between universities and between faculties. Some universities also demand a combination of several of these forms. Malaysia[edit] Like the British model, the PHD or MPhil student is required to submit their theses or dissertation for examination by two or three examiners. The first examiner is from the university concerned, the second examiner is from another local university and the third examiner is from a suitable foreign university (usually from Commonwealth countries). The choice of examiners must be approved by the university senate. In some public universities, a PhD or MPhil candidate may also have to show a number publications in peer reviewed academic journals as part of the requirement. An oral viva is conducted after the examiners have submitted their reports to the university. The oral viva session is attended by the Oral Viva chairman, a rapporteur with a PhD qualification, the first examiner, the second examiner and sometimes the third examiner. Branch campuses of British, Australian and Middle East universities in Malaysia use the respective models of the home campuses to examine their PhD or MPhil candidates. Philippines[edit] In the Philippines, a thesis is followed by an oral defense. In most universities, this applies to all bachelor, master, and doctorate degrees. However, the oral defense is held in once per semester (usually in the middle or by the end) with a presentation of revisions (so-called “plenary presentation”) at the end of each semester. The oral defense is typically not held in public for bachelor and master oral defenses, however a colloquium is held for doctorate degrees. Portugal[edit] In Portugal, a thesis is examined with an oral defense, which includes an initial presentation by the candidate followed by an extensive questioning/answering period. Typical duration for the total exam is 1 hour 30 minutes for the MSc and 3 hours for the PhD. North America[edit] In North America, the  thesis defense  or  oral defense  is the final examination for doctoral candidates, and sometimes for master’s candidates. The examining committee normally consists of the thesis committee, usually a given number of professors mainly from the student’s university plus his or her primary supervisor, an external examiner (someone not otherwise connected to the university), and a chair person. Each committee member will have been given a completed copy of the dissertation prior to the defense, and will come prepared to ask questions about the thesis itself and the subject matter. In many schools, master’s thesis defenses are restricted to the examinee and the examiners, but doctoral defenses are open to the public. The typical format will see the candidate giving a short (20–40-minute) presentation of his or her research, followed by one to two hours of questions. At some U.S. institutions, a longer public lecture (known as a “thesis talk” or “thesis seminar”) by the candidate will accompany the defense itself, in which case only the candidate, the examiners, and other members of the faculty may attend the actual defense. Russia and Ukraine[edit] A student in Ukraine or Russia has to complete a thesis and then defend it in front of their department. Sometimes the defense meeting is made up of the learning institute’s professionals and sometimes the students peers are allowed to view or join in. After the presentation and defense of the thesis, the final conclusion of the department should be that none of them have reservations on the content and quality of the thesis. A conclusion on the thesis has to be approved by the rector of the educational institute. This conclusion (final grade so to speak) of the thesis can be defended/argued not only at the thesis council, but also in any other thesis council of Russia or Ukraine. Spain[edit] The former Diploma de estudios avanzados (DEA) lasted two years and candidates were required to complete coursework and demonstrate their ability to research the specific topics they have studied. From 2011 on, these courses were replaced by academic Master’s programmes that include specific training on epistemology, and scientific methodology. After its completion, students are able to enrol in a specific PhD programme ( programa de doctorado ) and begin a dissertation on a set topic for a maximum time of three years (full-time) and five years (part-time). All students must have a full professor as an academic advisor ( director de tesis ) and a tutor, who is usually the same person. A dissertation ( tesis doctoral ), with an average of 250 pages, is the main requisite along with typically one previously published journal article. Once candidates have published their written dissertations, they will be evaluated by two external academics ( evaluadores externos ) and subsequently it is usually exhibited publicly for fifteen natural days. After its approval, candidates must defend publicly their research before a three-member committee ( tribunal ) with at least one visiting academic: chair, secretary and member ( presidente ,  secretario  y  vocal ). A typical public Thesis Defence ( defensa ) lasts 45 minutes and all attendants holding a doctoral degree are suitable to ask questions. United Kingdom, Ireland and Hong Kong[edit] In Hong Kong, Ireland and the United Kingdom, the thesis defense is called a  viva voce  (Latin for “by live voice”) examination ( viva  for short). A typical  viva  lasts for approximately 3 hours, though there is no formal time limit. Involved in the  viva  are two examiners and the candidate. Usually, one examiner is an academic from the candidate’s own university department (but not one of the candidate’s supervisors) and the other is an external examiner from a different university. Increasingly, the examination may involve a third academic, the ‘chair’; this person, from the candidate’s institution, acts as an impartial observer with oversight of the examination process to ensure that the examination is fair. The ‘chair’ does not ask academic questions of the candidate. [16] In the United Kingdom, there are only two or at most three examiners, and in many universities the examination is held in private. The candidate’s primary supervisor is not permitted to ask or answer questions during the viva, and their presence is not necessary. However, some universities permit members of the faculty or the university to attend. At the University of Oxford, for instance, any member of the University may attend a DPhil viva (the University’s regulations require that details of the examination and its time and place be published formally in advance) provided he or she attends in full academic dress. [17] Submission[edit] This section  does not cite any sources . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources:  “Thesis” â€“ news  ·  newspapers  ·  books  ·  scholar  ·  JSTOR  (September 2016)  (Learn how and when to remove this template message) A submission of the thesis is the last formal requirement for most students after the defense. By the final deadline, the student must submit a complete copy of the thesis to the appropriate body within the accepting institution, along with the appropriate forms, bearing the signatures of the primary supervisor, the examiners, and in some cases, the head of the student’s department. Other required forms may include library authorizations (giving the university library permission to make the thesis available as part of its collection) and copyright permissions (in the event that the student has incorporated copyrighted materials in the thesis). Many large scientific publishing houses (e.g. Taylor & Francis, Elsevier) use copyright agreements that allow the authors to incorporate their published articles into dissertations without separate authorization. Failure to submit the thesis by the deadline may result in graduation (and granting of the degree) being delayed. At most U.S. institutions, there will also be various fees (for binding, microfilming, copyright registration, and the like), which must be paid before the degree will be granted. Once all the paperwork is in order, copies of the thesis may be made available in one or more university libraries. Specialist abstracting services exist to publicize the content of these beyond the institutions in which they are produced. Many institutions now insist on submission of digitized as well as printed copies of theses; the digitized versions of successful theses are often made available online. See also[edit] Compilation thesis Comprehensive examination Dissertation Abstracts Grey literature Postgraduate education References[edit] ^ Originally, the concepts “dissertation” and “thesis” (plural, “theses”) were not interchangeable. When, at ancient universities, the lector had completed his lecture, there would traditionally follow a disputation, during which students could take up certain points and argue them. The position that one took during a disputation was the thesis, while the dissertation was the line of reasoning with which one buttressed it. Olga Weijers: The medieval disputatio . In: Hora est! (On dissertations) , p.23-27. Leiden University Library, 2005 ^ Jump up to: a b International Standard ISO 7144: Documentation—Presentation of theses and similar documents, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 1986. c ^ Douwe Breimer, Jos Damen et al.: Hora est! (On dissertations) . Leiden University Library, 2005 ^ “The Graduate Thesis”. ^ Aristotle (1928). “Topica”. In Ross, W.D. (ed.). The Works of Aristotle . 1 . Translated by Pickard-Cambridge, W.A. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. Bk. I.11 104b19–23. ^ Thomas, Gary (2009) Your Research Project . Thousand Oaks: Sage. ^ Rudestam & Newton (2007) Surviving your dissertation. Thousand Oaks: Sage. ^ “Italian Studies MA Thesis Work Plan”. ^ “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2006. Retrieved 28 April 2010. ^ “CONEAU”. CONEAU . Archived from the original on 25 August 2010. ^ “Carleton University – Canada’s Capital University”. Carleton.ca. Retrieved 24 November 2010. ^ “Our Universities – About Theses Canada – Theses Canada Portal”. Collectionscanada.gc.ca. 24 October 2008. Retrieved 24 November 2010. ^ “MSc Engg and PhD in IISc”. Ece.iisc.ernet.in. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November2010. ^ “Como dizer “TCC – Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso” em inglês”. English Experts . ^ “introductory chapter of a compilation thesis”. uhr.se . Universitets- och högskolerÃ¥det. Retrieved 3 February 2019. ^ Pearce, Lynne (2005) How to Examine a Thesis , McGraw-Hill International, pp. 79–85 ^ “Oxford University Examination Regulations, 2007”. Admin.ox.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 13 January 2011. Retrieved 24 November 2010. External links[edit] Look up   in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. thesis en.wikibooks.org/wiki/ETD Guide Guide to electronic theses and dissertations on Wikibooks Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD) EThOS Database Database of UK Doctoral theses available through the British Library Navigation menu Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in Search Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikipedia store Interaction Tools What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Wikidata item Cite this page In other projects Print/export Languages Deutsch Español Français 한국어 Bahasa Indonesia Bahasa Melayu 日本語 Português Русский This page was last edited on 7 February 2020, at 21:55 (UTC). Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Statistics Cookie statement Mobile view