Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs) are intermediaries that help universities commercialize their research outputs and foster economic competitiveness. However, in recent years, TTOs have also been called upon expanding their scope and mission in order to engage in the diffusion of transformative innovation; that is, innovation that aims at tackling grand societal challenges like climate change, health for all, or poverty. This implies that TTOs need to align potentially transformative technological solutions with societal needs, and to engage with a wider and more diverse range of actors, such as civil society organizations, social enterprises, and impact investors. How are TTOs interpreting and enacting this new expanded role? And what resources and capabilities are they mobilizing in order to fulfil it? Our recent study (Borrás, Gerli & Cenzato 2024) explores these questions by comparing two European TTOs that have been involved in projects related to the diffusion of transformative innovation. The study reveals that TTOs face several difficulties. One main difficulty is the disconnect between the prescribed expanded role of TTOs and their actual interpretation of that role. The study shows that TTOs tend to adhere to their traditional role, even when they are exposed to projects that require a different approach. This suggests that TTOs need to develop a clear organizational awareness and understanding of their new role within their innovation ecosystem. Another difficulty is the lack of resources that TTOs have in order to engage in transformative innovation diffusion. The study identifies four types of resources that TTOs need: financial, human, mandate, and network resources. Financial resources are necessary to support the patenting and licensing processes, as well as the social impact assessment and measurement. Human resources are crucial to provide technical and legal expertise, as well as soft skills such as communication and dialogue. Mandate resources refer to the degree of autonomy and legitimacy that TTOs have to carry out their new activities. Network resources involve the availability and accessibility of partners and stakeholders that can support and collaborate with the TTOs in the diffusion process of transformative innovation. Our study also highlights some of the capabilities that TTOs need to develop or enhance, such as boundary spanning, coordination, reflexivity, and evaluation. Boundary spanning capabilities enable TTOs to bridge the gap between the academic and the social worlds, and to interact with unfamiliar actors. Coordination capabilities allow TTOs to manage the complexity and diversity of the transformative innovation process, and to facilitate the co-creation of solutions. Reflexivity capabilities help TTOs to understand the potential societal impacts of the technologies and innovations they transfer, and to align them with the societal needs. Evaluation capabilities enable TTOs to measure and communicate the value and impact of their activities, beyond the market-oriented metrics. We conclude suggesting that rethinking the roles, resources, and capabilities of TTOs can help them address the misalignment between their traditional and expanded missions, and to better contribute to the diffusion of transformative innovation for societal impact.